Науковий керівник к.п.н, доцент Є.В. Долинський
Хмельницький національний університет
THE MAIN FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IN PROVIDING OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESS
Стаття присвячена розгляду основних факторів, що впливають на глобалізаційні процеси на сучасному етапі.
Статья посвящена рассмотрению перевода как особенного вида межкультурной коммуникации. В условиях современной глобализации. Определена роль переводчика в процессе межкультурной коммуникации.
The translation as a special kind of intercultural communication in the current globalization is considered in the article. The role of the translator is determined in the process of intercultural communication.
Intorduction. In our fast changing time when globalization is gaining momentum in the economy, the radical social change also can be found. New means of communication appear; experts conduct negotiations, international firms cooperate in large projects, researchers attend conferences to share the results of new studies and, therefore, publish gained results. Different language speakers are meeting everywhere in a various situations to communicate and share their views. Therefore, the importance of the study is based on its subject that is connected with intercultural communication problems.
The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze the translator’s role in the process of intercultural communication in present-day globalization and consider the translation activity as a means of effective international cooperation and international dialogue.
Studies on the close culture and language interconnection were conducted by Hyudykunst V., E. Hall, M. Klein, G. Gering, D. Levin, M. Abelman. Doktor of Science at Columbia University Edward T. Hall argued that culture is communication and communication is culture.
The results of the research. Globalization as a process of people, companies and different nations governments integration, has existed for centuries mainly for business activity. But the globalization growth pace has significantly increased over the past decade due to the latest technology. While the commercial effect is obvious, there is a question of possible national cultural differences elimination in the process of globalization and creation of national cultures active positions concerning protection of their identity from the other cultures influence. In a globalization process UNESCO recognizes the crucial role of language in shaping and strengthening cultural identity and the development of regional integration in intercultural dialogue. Fair exchange and dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples based on mutual understanding and respect, all cultures equal dignity is a necessary condition for social cohesion formation, reconciliation and peace between nations.
A huge amount of international and interlingual communication in various spheres of human activity is present in nowadays globalized world. Even considering the fact that more and more professionals, officials and business people in Ukraine know (often perfectly) foreign languages, interpreter profession as a mediator for communication, on the qualifications, cultural and educational level of which depends a lot of business success, does not lose its value . This profession has gained a multi-faceted character. Modern technology of international cooperation, requirements for written translations, negotiations, conferences and other events at the cross-language level put for translator new professional and social demands.
Translation is certainly a very ancient human activity. Once in history a groups of people had been formed whose languages were different from each other, "bilinguals" appeared and helped "multilingual" groups to communicate. When writing appeared, translators joined to such interpreters. They translated various texts of official, religious and business styles. From the very beginning, translation fulfilled important social function, enabling cross-language communication. Translation task was to ensure this type of interlingual communication, in which receptor’s language generated text (in the "target language") could serve as a complete communication replacement of the original and be identified by receptors of translation with the originaltext in the functional, structural and meaningful relations.
In recent years political and technological progress has led to an almost absolute freedom of speech. Satellite communications and the Internet have destroyed the barriers of borders in human communication via technology. Economic globalization has reached its limit in which different companies connected by the Internet can work in different parts of the world profitably using the time difference. Tourism, mass production and mass culture development is a growing desire for greater unity in the latest information technologies and their application, and also any received information on the main communication vector needs to be understood by all members of society, requires partial or full translation.
Translator on the modern society development is as a communicant of special sort. He reveals or conveys the information necessary for others. Translator receives information and at the same time he is not the recipient or addressee, but he transmits it though he is not the sender.
Hans Honig notes that "translation bridge connects two different cultures and language communities and allows free words and ideas exchange. The bridge serves for texts being able to be transported without problems from side to side "[5, p. 10], "the object of a translator is the purpose and the idea of direct interlingual communication, which he performes as a linguistic event in the process of finding equivalents" [3, p. 122].
According to N.G. Valeyeva , the consideration of translation as intercultural communication results from the understanding of language as a culture component, a single socio-cultural education, and of culture as a set of material and spiritual society progress, including the many facets of the historical, social and psychological features of ethnos,its traditions, attitudes, values, institutions, behavior, life, living conditions - in short, all aspects of its life and consciousness.
Knowledge of any people’s language and culture and a personal attitude to it are two layers in the mind of a translator that he has to share in his work. The latter may play a significant role, for example, during diplomatic negotiations. It happens that the interpreter works for one side in an international conflict, but for one reason or another, he sympathizes other. But the deepness of any translator’s sympathy to one or the other side of the negotiations is insignificant, he must refuse in advance from direct and immediate impact on negotiation results. From the standpoint of professional ethics, otherwise behavior is improper and unacceptable. Linguistic mediator’s duty is not to use his knowledge in order to prompt the parties of international disputes how to solve their problems but to help them in figuring out what they want to say to each other. 
A requirement for the translator’s competence is his introduction to both cultures; he should strive to double cultural identity. Originally translator approaches the original text, understands and processes it and then brings it to a group of recipients in the target language. Therefore, not only language skills but also knowledge of the linguistic culture spaces belongs to the translator’s linguistic competence [4, p. 209-210].
To aprehend foreign culture you must have the ability to abstraction and be able to change the perspective. Translator prescinds from his respective culture attitudes and perceptions of value observing someone else's culture and its uniqueness compared to hisown and use observation and perception in a particular communicative situation in accordance with the objectives and culture. Therefore, the translator can have not only the role of linguistic expert, but also a specialist in intercultural communication. A good translation is one that performs the functions of the original in the target culture.
Thus, at the present-day development of society, in terms of political and technological changes (development of new information technologies that provide freedom of speech) translator’s role as a mediator between cultures have increased significantly over the past decade. In international business, tourism and world politics (UNESCO, EU, NATO) translation is a necessary part of communication processes that occur between people of different cultures. Therefore, the translator is the important element that ensures maximum efficiency of cross-cultural communication of people belonging to different cultures and languages .
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